Biology, one of the three main branches of science, the other two being physics and chemistry, deals with life and living organisms. Its name has been derived from the Greek words "bios" (life) and "logos" (study). It includes the study of the physical structure, molecular interactions, chemical processes, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution of different organisms. The study of the branch is important because it helps us in various ways such as it provides an in-depth understanding of how all living and non-living organisms interact among them, it gives insights about the diverse life forms, it encompasses other fields of research that are concerned with the sustainability of life which includes the environment, ecosystem, food quality, the study of the human body, causes of illnesses, analysis and prevention of diseases, development of medicines, etc.
The study of biology in terms of its various branches and their respective sub-branches is different in various countries and various courses offered by several institutes worldwide. Biology has several sub-disciplines which are defined and categorized by various research methods and related study patterns such as the broad division into the theoretical biology which uses mathematical formulae to establish facts and the experimental biology which uses empirical experiments. Biology can also be broadly classified two kinds – basic biology and applied biology. Basic biology is the research aimed at understanding fundamental problems, such as understanding how cells work. Applied biology is the application of basic scientific knowledge to solve practical problems, such as in the medical field. Applied biology uses and applies information obtained through basic biology. The basic biology consists of different branches like molecular biology, genetics, taxonomy, embryology, physiology, morphology, etc. The applied biology consists of various branches like agriculture, forestry, fishery, veterinary, science of medicine, economic biology, animal husbandry, etc.
Starting with the undergraduate courses, certain basic courses are available in many universities around the globe but different regions provide specify courses as well. Some common undergraduate courses such as in agriculture, farm management, horticulture, plant and crop services, veterinary science, food science and technology, biomedical sciences, environmental sciences, life sciences are commonly available in universities abroad with a duration ranging from 3 years to 5 years. It must be understood that various undergraduate courses have different time periods of completion. For instance in the Aberystwyth University, the United Kingdom, the undergraduate course for Agriculture with Animal Science BSc (Hons) takes 3 years to complete but the course on Agriculture with Animal Science with Integrated year in industry BSc (Hons) takes 4 year to complete. Well, the same course may take different time periods to complete in different universities. For instance the Biochemistry BSc (Hons) course in Aberystwyth University takes 3 years to complete but the same course in University of Dundee takes 4 years to complete, while noting the fact that both the universities belong to the United Kingdom.
Some popular undergraduate courses of biology pursued abroad are in the fields of Biology, Medicine, Agriculture with Animal Science, Biochemistry, Biology with Balanced Science, Biotechnology, Equine and Veterinary Biosciences, Genetics, Human biology and health, Industrial biotechnology, Marine and Freshwater biology, Microbiology, Parasite control, Plant biology and Zoology.
Stanford University, University of California, California Institute of Technology, Harvard University Johns Hopkins University, Princeton University, Yale University, are certain reputed Universities providing graduation degrees in various streams of biology.
Now going country wise for a certain courses such as the degree of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery are best provided in countries like Canada for a term of 4 years, Singapore and Hong Kong for terms of 5 years, Russia for a term of 6 years, to name a few. Certain reputed universities from which a Bachelor’s degree in Agriculture can be pursued include Cornell University for a term of 4 year, University of Illinois at Urbana for a term of 4 years, Iowa State University for a term of 4 years, Kansas State University for a term of 4 years. The Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University of Washington, and University of Oxford are some top universities that provide a Bachelor's degree in microbiology.
A Master’s degree preferably includes a kind of specialisation on the stream chosen during the undergraduate course. Certain colleges entertain a Master’s degree in a branch of biology only with a required period of field experience. Some courses other than those specified earlier for graduation on which a Master’s degree can be available are of Surgery, Forensic Biology, Eco-technology, Biochemistry, Bio-analytical and Pharmaceutical Analysis, Life Science Informatics, generative biology and medicine, biophysics, advanced Oncology, Structural Chemistry and Spectroscopy, Cardiovascular Science, Animal husbandry, etc. Some universities are famous for providing certain courses for a Master's degree such as a course in Secondary Education Biology by University of Wolverhampton and a course on Microbiology and Infection by University of Birmingham for a periods of 1 year, a course on Agriculture by Purdue University and a course on Biological and Environmental Science by University of Jyvaskyla for a periods of 2 years, etc., is famous. For pursuing a Master’s degree in Agriculture the most popular universities include Aberystwyth University, University of Sydney, University of Adelaide and Massey University to name a few.
The foreign countries most preferred to study medicine as a Master’s degree course include Norway, Taiwan, Germany, France, Mexico and Argentina. Certain universities in which different streamlined courses of genetics are offered best as Master's degree courses include University of Sheffield and the King’s College London for terms of 1 year, Virginia Commonwealth University for a term minimum of 59 graduate credit hours and Charles Sturt University for a term of 1 and a half years, to name a few.
A person interested in doing research always looks for a university which provides a stable environment of study, variety of precise research equipment, opportunity for proper publishing of the outcome documents and further exposure to related placement opportunities in specific fields. The fields of research in biology may vary from as simple as Biology and Molecular Biology provided by the European Molecular Biology Laboratory to as complex as Marine Microbiology by International Max Planck Research Institute. Certain universities like the University of Bristol, University of Cambridge, University of Warwick, University of Edinburgh, Institute of Molecular Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Imperial College London, University of Manchester, etc provide a considerable amount of stipend for doing PhD in different courses of biology that are offered by them. For research some of the fully funded scholarships include The London Institute of Medical Sciences PhD Scholarships, University College London Scholarship, The University College Cork For International Students in Ireland, Colab PhD scholarship by Auckland University of Technology, Visiting Graduate Student Summer Fellowships by Yale University, are a few to name.
According to the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2018, for biology the Top 5 Universities are Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University of Cambridge, University of Oxford and Stanford University in order. Now in this world of increasing expenses, students do look out for scholarships which encompass a part of the tuition fees, entire tuition fees, tuition fees along with accommodation. For undergraduate courses of various branches under biology the Radboud University Medical Centre Study Fund, OAS Alma College undergraduate scholarships, High Achievers Scholarships of University of Newcastle, Vanderbilt University Merit scholarships, Awards for International Students UBC, Co-op Scholarship of Australian Catholic University, Paul and Daisy Soros Fellowships, etc can be applied for a considerable fee reduction. For post-graduation degrees in streams as mentioned above popular scholarships include Victoria University of Wellington Scholarship, Global Study IELTS scholarship, Heinrich Boll Foundation Master's Scholarship, International Merit Scholarship of University Of Gloucestershire, CSIRO’s Postgraduate Scholarship Program, SAMRC Postgraduate Scholarships in Bio-Statistics, Radboud University Medical Centre Master Study Fund, The University Alliance Scholarship, etc.
As the spectrum of biology is colossal, which includes further sub-categorisation as well, so are the future opportunities and job perspectives. With an undergraduate degree in a stream of biology the progression can occur either by pursuing higher studies whose details have been given above or by getting a job as a research assistant, a research technician, a sales representative in the agricultural, food processing, pharmaceutical, or biomedical industries, an assistant environmentalist, a genetic counsellor or a high school teacher. A post-graduate degree with good grades can help in enrolling into subtle doctoral programmes or help in getting jobs of a registered nurse, doctor, practical or vocational nurse, pharmacy technician, medical laboratory technician, dentist, radiologic technologist, fitness trainer, massage therapist, surgical technologist, veterinary technician, respiratory therapist, nutritionist or a dietician. Major reasons to get a PhD in such fields are to become a biologist with required qualifications so as to perform a research independently or work for post-secondary institutions, private employers or government agencies that require certain advanced credentials. The career opportunities can likely depend on the sub-specialty one has chosen. For instance, with a doctoral degree in microbiology, one can pursue jobs related to studying viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi or other microorganisms. One can also decide to specialize in the study of one particular type of microorganism. There is also scope for post-doctoral research which is provided by certain universities with scholarships like the Smuts Memorial Postdoctoral fellowships in the University of Cape Town.
Did you know, over 37 Australian universities have made it to the 2018 QS list of top universities in the world? The Australian education system offers quality education combined with great employer and industry reputation.
The primary and secondary level of education in Australia is no different than the other countries since it sets up the basic concepts of knowledge in the mind of young. What makes a difference is the tertiary education programme in Australia.
Australia has around 43 universities and in order to keep in check the working of these universities the Australian government has initiated programmes such as:
• The Australian Qualification Framework (AQF) established in 1995 as a national policy for tertiary education in Australia.
• The Tertiary Education Quality and Standard Agency (TEQSA) which monitors the quality standards of higher education in Australia.
The top quality institutions in Australia offer a variety of courses. The best courses to study are:
Some of the globally renowned institutes and universities of Australia are:
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