Physics is one of the major branches of science, apart from chemistry and biology, which is concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy. The term has been derived from the Greek term ‘physikḗ’ which means 'knowledge of nature'. It deals with matter and energy along with their interactions in the fields of atomic structure, mechanics, optics, heat, radiation, acoustics, electricity, magnetism, and nuclear phenomena. It is one of the most fundamental and oldest scientific disciplines, whose main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. The field intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research and thus the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. This further adds up to the importance of physics as it explains the fundamental laws of the universe and introduces important concepts that are essential for advancement in the studies of chemistry, biology and all other branches of science. From the medicine in which we use X-rays, the radioisotope, the nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, laser and electron microscopes, synchrotron radiation, and electronics all depend on advances made in physics. We could not have built the modern computers without knowledge of quantum mechanics. Today our world is much better connected than in previous ancient times as these days we travel far, communicate quickly and conduct business around the world effortlessly, nothing of these would have been possible without advancement in physics.
By now, it must have been understood that physics is a broad field of study. Based upon different methods of categorizations and varied research analysis there are various branches of physics, which further have their respective sub-branches. Some common branches of physics are Classical mechanics, Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, Electromagnetism and electronics, Relativity, Quantum mechanics, Optics, Condensed matter physics, high energy/ particle physics and nuclear physics, Cosmology, to name a few. The Classical mechanics is the physics of forces acting upon bodies, Thermodynamics studies the effects of changes in pressure, temperature, and volume on physical systems on a macroscopic scale, Quantum mechanics refers to study atomic and subatomic systems and their interaction with radiation, Optics is the study of light, ondensed matter physics is the study of the physical properties of matter in a condensed phase, Particle physics studies the nature of particles, Nuclear physics studies the atomic nuclei and Cosmology is the study of how the universe came to be and its eventual fate. In standard courses of high school study we generally start studying physics. After which one has to start specializing one’s path of study, having said that, in case one continues with any branch of science, the subject of physics is definitely going to be encountered at some points at least.
The field of physics is so vast that studying in one country cannot suffice certain of its specializations. For instance, electromagnetism is considered to be taught best in Italy, South Korea etc, cosmology is the United Kingdom and United States of America, and so on. Studying abroad not only lets one chose one of the best institutions around the world in terms of learning but also helps one cope better with the world. Starting with the undergraduate courses, many basic courses are available in many universities around the globe but different regions provide specific courses as well. Some common undergraduate degrees courses of physics such as all kinds of engineering, Bachelor of science (Honors) in applied physics, Bachelor of creative intelligence, nuclear physics, physics and astronomy, atomic and molecular physics, optical physics, astronomy, geo-physics, etc. are offered by universities abroad for a duration ranging from 1 year to 5 years. The same course may take different time periods to be completed by different universities like the Bachelor of Science (Honors) in Applied Physics undergraduate degree course is completed in 1 year period by the University of Technology Sydney whereas the degree same granted in 4 years by the University of Dundee.
Some common courses on which a Bachelor’s degree is available are of Engineering & Physical Science by University of Dundee for a period of 1 year, in Applied Physics by Victoria University of Wellignton, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics BSc (Hons) along with Space Science and Robotics BSc (Hons) by Aberystwyth University, Physics with Particle Physics & Cosmology BSc (Hons) by Swansea University and BSc in Medical Radiation Science - Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Technology by University of Toronto for a period of 3 years, Creative Intelligence by University of Technology Sydney for a period of 4 years, Electronic and Electrical Engineering (Hons) and Mechanical and Biomedical Technology (Hons) by Robert Gordon University and Automotive and Transport Design BA (Hons) by Coventry University for period of 4 years. Out of all these the most commonly sought after physics graduation degree by Indian students undoubtedly remains to be a degree in engineering. So the best universities around the world for a degree in engineering according to the 2019 edition of the QS World University Rankings are Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Stanford University, Harvard University, California Institute of Technology (Caltech), University of Oxford, University of Cambridge and ETH Zurich - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, in order.
A Master’s degree preferably is a kind of specialization on the stream or sub-stream chosen during the undergraduate course. Some courses on which a Master’s degree can be available are of Physics, different streams of Engineering, Nuclear Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Statistical Physics, Condensed matter Physics, Biophysics, Textile Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Mechanics, Automotive Power, etc. Some universities are famous for providing certain courses for a Master's degree such as a course in Applied Physics by University of Glasgow, Particles, Strings and Cosmology by Durham University, Climate and Atmospheric Science by University of Leeds, Acoustics by University of Southampton and Applied Science in Nuclear Engineering by University of Ontario Institute of Technology for a period of 1 year, Analytical Physics by Auckland University of Technology for a period of 1 and a half years, Chemical Physics by University of Sheffield for a term of 4 years, Science in Computational Physics by George Mason University for a term of 30 credit hours, Radiology Technology by Community College of Spokane for a term of 112 credit hours, to name a few.
Coming to PhD or a Doctoral degree, one of the main things the universities will be looking for an excellent academic record which is especially important if you are applying for a scholarship. Some universities would require a Master's degree before entering a PhD programme. Still, it is not unusual to ascent directly to a PhD after your Bachelor's degree in some universities. A person interested in doing research always looks for a university which provides a stable study environment, variety of precise research equipment, opportunity for proper publishing of the outcome documents and further exposure to related placement opportunities in specific fields. Several scholarships are available for PhD students to study abroad which include American Association Of University Women International Fellowships, Colab PhD Scholarship, AAUW International Fellowships For Women, Judith Kinnear Student Travel Scholarship, Visiting Graduate Student Summer Fellowships, PhD Fellowship At Hector Fellow Academy, Fully Funded Macao PhD Scholarship, VUW PhD Scholarships.
According to QS World University Rankings by Subject 2018, the top 5 universities for Physics and Astronomy Worldwide are Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Harvard University, Stanford University, University of Cambridge and University of California, in order. Acknowledging the fact that studying in foreign universities is expensive, students often look for partially or fully funded scholarships. Some popular scholarships for undergraduate courses under physics include Arjen Ryder Memorial Undergraduate Scholarships, No Loan Arch Scholarship, Vanderbilt University Merit Scholarships, University Of Leicester Undergraduate Scholarships, Awards For International Students UBC, Fairleigh Dickinson University Presidential Scholarship, Merit Scholarships For Undergraduate Students, etc. For post-graduation degrees in streams as mentioned above popular scholarships include Chevening Scholarship, Heinrich Böll Foundation Master's Scholarship, University Of Alberta Scholarships, S.N Bose Scholars Student Exchange Program, University Of Huddersfield Scholarships To Progress From Bachelor's To Master's, HKADC Overseas Arts Administration Scholarships, Manchester Metropolitan University Vice-Chancellor Scholarships, etc.
The future and job opportunities by the degrees in different fields of physics are as vast as the entire field of it. With an undergraduate degree in a stream of physics the progression can occur either by pursuing higher studies whose details have been given above or by getting a job of a Accelerator Operator, Applications Engineer, Data Analyst, Design Engineer, High School Physics Teacher, IT Consultant, Lab Technician., Laser Engineer. Assistant Metallurgist, materials specialist, Research Associate, Software Developer, Web Developer, etc.. A post-graduate degree with good grades can help in enrolling into subtle doctoral programmes or help in getting jobs of Acoustic consultant, Geophysicist/ field seismologist, Higher education lecturer, Metallurgist, Nanotechnologist, Radiation protection practitioner, Research scientist (physical sciences), Secondary school teacher, Investment analyst, Meteorologist, Nuclear engineer, Operational researcher, Software engineer, etc. Students who pursue a PhD study do so because they are passionate about a specific subject or sub- subject and want to use their research to make discoveries within that field. One of the great things about one doing a PhD is that he will be able to conduct his own research, in case his thesis and his findings are strong and relevant, other experts within the chosen region of academia will give reference to his work and discoveries while teaching future students. There is also scope for post-doctoral research which is provided by certain universities with scholarships like Doctoral Scholarships At University Of Hamburg.
One of the most prosperous developed countries in the world, New Zealand is a group of islands located near Australia.The country boasts of an extremely diverse population and its economy is flourishing, varying from extraction industries and tourism to innovation, infrastructure and technological industries.
New Zealand is home to a multitude of universities and colleges providing tertiary education across all fields to students from all over the world. Engineering, law, business, horticulture, agriculture, architecture, language, literature, social sciences, information technology, computing and banking are some of the numerous subjects taught throughout the country by institutes of international esteem. Some of the best universities in New Zealand are:
These educational centers provide studies at the under-graduate, post-graduate and doctorate levels. Universities in New Zealand also mete out vocational and distance education. Moreover, many institutions provide learning programs, certificate courses and job-oriented training. While the government provides subsidies in education for local students, no such subsidies are available for international students.
New Zealand cities like Auckland and Wellington are international centers of commerce, business and arts. The prosperity and growth opportunities further mark NZ’s spot as a major student destination.
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