Disaster Management

Disaster Management is the organization that manages the resources and the responsibilities which occur due to any natural cause. It mainly teaches her to prepare ourselves for any natural problem which occurs from any natural cause. I help the human race to learn about the recovery and to respond to the aftermaths or the impact created by the natural disaster in the first place.

Disaster Management helps us to understand the stages and levels of nature. It helps us to look inside the causes of any disaster which can take place due to the disturbance of the human mind or taking place as a cause of self. 

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There are many types of disasters that take place under Disaster Management. Every other scientist has their theory of how many Disasters are there. Some think they are only three types, and some think they are of 5 types. Whether the fact that they are somewhere or the other similar, still some scientist think that their opinion and research is slightly different than the other. Therefore the types of disasters are as follows:

  • Geophysical: Earthquake, Tsunami, Landslides, Volcanic Eruptions, etc.
  • Hydrological: Floods, Avalanches, etc.
  • Climatological: Drought, Wildfires in forests, Extreme rise or downfall in temperature, etc.
  • Meteorological: Storms, Large Water Waves, Cyclones, etc.
  • Biological: Animal Plagues, Epidemic Diseases (Eg.: Corona Virus, Cholera, etc.), Insect Plagues, etc.
  • Natural Disasters: Flood, Earthquake, Volcano Eruptions, Hurricanes, Tornadoes, etc.
  • Technological: Natural Gas Explosions, Chemical Releases, and activities, Power outages, and cuts, etc.
  • ManMade Disasters: Riots ( Race, etc.), Terror Attacks, Mob Riots, Mass Shootings, etc.

In 2018 according to the Disaster Management Department Survey, in total, ten places or regions on earth faced the problem of disasters in which almost of them were due to natural causes.


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Thus they are as follows:

RegionDisaster
1. United StatesEarthquake
2. AustraliaNatural and Man-Made Occurance
3. CanadaEarthquake
4. New ZealandEarthquake
5. United KingdomNuclear Riots
6. The NetherlandsMan-Made Crash
7. RussiaForest Fires
8. IndiaCloudburst
9. SomaliaDrought
10.PakistanFlood, Cyclone

Certain strategies can be used to prevent these disaster occurrences. Some of them are as follows:

  • To prevent or avoid the hazards which are related to disasters.
  • Mitigation against disasters.
  • Preparedness against any natural cause beforehand, or to be ready for the disaster.
  • To manage and respond to the activities around us and not to panic.
  • To help each other to recover fast, and one should not panic.
  • Critical Facilities should be provided to everyone and oneself.
  • To protect critical facilities.
  • Help in disaster risk reduction.

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There is a Disaster Management Cycle which is mentioned below:

  • Risk Appraisal
  • Risk Analysis
  • Risk Identification
  • Reconstruction
  • Rehabilitation
  • Image Assessment
  • Humanitarian Aid
  • Search and Rescue
  • Early Warning
  • Monitoring
  • Emergency
  • Capacity Bui
  • Technical Prevention
  • Land-use Planning

There are many universities and reputed institutions which do have Disaster Management Studies as a course. Some of the top institutions and universities around the world which do have Disaster Management study courses are as follows:

  • Georgetown University
  • American Public University System
  • Adelphi University
  • Saint Louis University

Disaster

D – DESTRUCTION

I – INCIDENTS

S – SUFFERINGS

A – ADMINISTRATIVE FAILURE

S – SENTIMENTS

T – TRAGEDIES

E – ERUPTION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

R – RESEARCH PROGRAM AND IMPLEMENTATION.

If the disaster is occurring or about to occurred or has occurred, then in such a situation, what measures precautions need to be taken to save the life of human beings.

WHAT IS DISASTER MANAGEMENT?

Disaster Management is the organization that manages the resources and takes measures for dealing with all aspects of emergencies and also prepares recovery measures in order to lessen the impact of disasters. Since we cannot control the disasters from occurring, but we can take proper measures to prevent such occurring through proper management.

Disasters are the consequences of natural or human hazards. So, through disaster management, we can prevent hazards from being turned into disasters. There are three steps in this disaster management.

PRE-DISASTER MANAGEMENT

This is a pre-disaster management phase where the warnings can the given to people who are residing near the disaster-prone areas so that they can migrate to another place that is safe and secure for them. As a result, human life is preserved.

MANAGEMENT DURING DISASTER

In case a disaster arises in a place, so the disaster management team is sent to disaster-prone areas, which ultimately help the victims and transport safe people from one place to another. Food items, clothes, and health amenities are all provided to the people.

POST-DISASTER MANAGEMENT

In this phase, reconstruction and redevelopment of the affected areas take place. Also, the administration is bound to help affected people with their surviving needs.

There are many types of disasters that can take place under Disaster Management.

  1. GEOPHYSICAL
  2. HYDROLOGICAL
  3. CLIMATOLOGICAL
  4. METEOROLOGICAL
  5. BIOLOGICAL
  6. MAN-MADE

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

India is a very large country and is prone to different disasters.

For example:- During the rainy season, the southern part of India is prone to affect by cyclones, whereas western India is prone to drought in summers. At the National level, the Ministry Of Home Affairs is the nodal ministry for all matters concerning Disaster Management. They make several plans such as:-

  1. The national crisis management committee
  2. Crisis management group
  3. Emergency operation room
  4. State Relief Manuals
  5. Contingency Action Plans
  6. Funding Mechanisms

NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY

The Disaster Management Act was passed by the LOK SABHA and RAJYA SABHA ON 2005 with the assent of PRIME MINISTERS OF INDIA. The Act called for the establishment of NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (NDMA), having Prime Minister as a chairperson. It is an apex body of the Government of India. Their main role is to lay down the policies for disaster management.

Disaster Management in India refers to saving of life and property during the times of natural or man-made disasters. The disaster Management team plans and prepares various measures to lessen the impact of disaster if occurred in any part of India.

  • NDMA WAS FOUNDED ON 30 MAY 2005
  • AREA COVERED: INDIA
  • CHAIRPERSON: PRIME MINISTERS
  • APEX BODY OF GOI

DISASTER TYPES

  1. Man-made Disaster: Like Dam Failure, Nuclear Accidents, Oil Spills And Leakages, Mass-mitigation, Riots Etc.
  2. Natural Disaster: Natural Calamities Like Earthquake, Flood, Cyclones, Forest Fire, Dust Storms, Sandstorms, Landslides Etc.
  3. Hydrological Disasters: Like Floods, Tornadoes, Cloud Burst, Sea Erosion, Tsunami Etc.
  4. Geological: Landslides And Mudflows
  5. Chemical And Industrial Disaster: Spills Of Chemical From Industries
  6. Biological Related Disaster: Cattle Epidemics, Covid Pandemic

TYPES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT

PRE-DISASTER MANAGEMENT

This is a pre-disaster management phase where the warnings can the given to people who are residing near the disaster-prone areas so that they can migrate to another place that is safe and secure for them. As a result, human life is preserved.

MANAGEMENT DURING DISASTER

In case a disaster arises in a place, so disaster management team is sent to disaster-prone areas which ultimately help the victims and transport safe people from one place to another. Food items, clothes, and health amenities are all provided to the people.

POST-DISASTER MANAGEMENT

In this phase, reconstruction and redevelopment of the affected areas take place. Also, the administration is bound to help affected people with their surviving needs.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE

Disaster Management cycle involves 4 steps

Mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery

  • MITIGATION: measures taken to minimize the results from the disaster.
  • PREPAREDNESS: planning how to deal with the situation. Example warning signals, training programs
  • RESPONSE: Initial actions taken as the events take place.
  • RECOVERY: taking actions in the country until normalcy is restored.

Natural Disaster Management

The main elements of disaster management are:

  1. MITIGATION
  2. PREPAREDNESS
  3. RESPONSE
  4. RELIEF
  5. RECOVERY

The natural Disaster management team ensures all client needs are satisfied.

They provide the following services

  • Data management
  • Tree inspection and assessments
  • Monitoring the projects
  • Funding schemes
  • Advertising expense

DISASTER MANAGEMENT FOR EARTHQUAKE

Earthquake is one of the deadliest disasters on Earth so to avoid this

Regular inspection of older buildings and renovate them if required to increase earthquake resistance.

Existing facilities build on reclaimed land because of high potential for liquefaction.

All necessary measures need to be taken to mitigate the disaster.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT FOR FLOOD

Flood forecasting is the first step in managing flood disasters. This is very much important to prevent loss of human lives, livestock, and movable property. Flood forecasting involves four main activities:

Foremost is the Collection of hydrological data, transferring the data to forecasting centers, analysis of data, and dissemination of information.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT FOR TSUNAMI

Earthquakes under the sea bottom, submarine volcanic eruptions are the major cause for Tsunami. If your place is under Tsunami warning first protect yourself from an earthquake. Go to high grounds as far as possible. Always be alert of warning signs of Tsunami, such as a sudden rise or draining of ocean water. Always listen to emergency warnings and don’t wait till the end evacuate the place as soon as possible.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT FOR CYCLONE

Cyclones are generally known by different names like typhoons, Hurricanes, willy-willies, Tornadoes and Tropical cyclones

If in case any place is hit by cyclone Natural Disaster Management Authority is mandated to deal with disaster management in India. National guidelines have been made on the management of Cyclones. NATIONAL CYCLONE MITIGATION PROJECT HAS BEEN LAUNCHED TO MITIGATE THE DISASTER OF CYCLONE.

OBJECTIVES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT

The main aim of disaster management is to reduce the damage and impact caused by any of the disasters. Also, improve the understanding of disaster risk, hazards, and vulnerabilities.

Objectives as follows:

  1. Strengthen disaster risk governance at all levels from local to center
  2. Enhance disaster plans for effective response
  3. To create awareness about public health emergencies.\
  4. To mitigate the hazards.

CASE STUDY

The following case studies give you brief information about natural disasters and ways to manage the same. Case studies help to identify the reason for disasters and measures taken at that time and what measures need to be taken now to mitigate its occurrence.

  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3483513/
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3483513/
  • https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265209421_Disaster_Management_A_Case_Study_of_Uttarakhand
  • http://www.ijcm.org.in/article.asp?issn=0970-0218;year=2012;volume=37;issue=3;spage=185;epage=190;aulast=Gupta

Note: case studies taken from Google.

SLOGAN ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT

The following are the slogans for disaster management. Always arm yourself with knowledge and take necessary precautions to avoid disasters. Natural disasters can occur naturally, but we can manage things accordingly to prevent such loss.

  1. WE CANNOT STOP DISASTERS, BUT WE CAN SURROUND OURSELVES WITH KNOWLEDGE.
  2. DON’T GET HURT, STAY ALERT
  3. PRECAUTION IS IMPORTANT AS YOU ARE FOR YOUR LOVED ONE
  4. DON’T DIE BEFORE YOUR DEATH, LIVE AND TAKE PRECAUTION
  5. WHEN HAIL RAINS DOWN, THERE COULD BE TORNADO AROUND.

ROLE OF NGOS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

The role of the NGO’S during a disaster is to have a quick response and to try and save as many lives as it can with the given funds. The main function performed by the NGO were providing health care materials, organizing health camp, involved in the rescue operation, water supply, sanitization, arranging temporary shelters, etc.

ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

The responsibility of Disaster Management lies with central and state governments. It is the duty of the government to reduce the effectiveness of disasters.

Following are its key responsibilities:

  1. Early Warning
  2. Educating People About Disaster Management
  3. Providing Relief Materials
  4. Shifting Injured People To Safe Places
  5. Provide Clean Food To People
  6. Analyze The Damage
  7. Analyze The Cause Of Disaster And Future Planning To Tackle Such Disasters in the Future.

ROLE OF STUDENTS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Students considered being the youth of the country. Our educational system should include training programs to the students from the school level so that students should inculcate the habit of helping others in times of need. A disaster is a misfortune that negatively affects society. The youth of a country has a sharp mind and can help in getting out victims as soon as possible.

They can spread awareness about disasters and tell them to take precautions in times of emergency.

They can conduct nukkad nataks to educate people

Make a plan to deal with any one of the disasters likely to affect your school or college.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT TOPICS

  1. EARTHQUAKES
  2. PANDEMICS
  3. FLOODS
  4. CYCLONES
  5. RIOTS
  6. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
  7. TSUNAMIS
  8. DROUGHT
  9. FIRE

FAQs

✅ What are the different types of disaster management?

The Types of Disaster are:

1. Geophysical
2. Hydrological
3. Climatological
4. Meteorological
5. Biological

✅ What are the 3 types of disasters?

The 3 Types of Disaster are:

1. Natural – Hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, floods, volcanoes, etc.
2. Technological – Chemical releases, power outages, natural gas explosions, etc.
3. Man-made – Terror attacks, race riots, mass shootings, etc.

✅ What does Disaster Mitigation mean?

Mitigation means reducing the limits on the adverse impact of disasters on the economy and population of that country. We can prepare several strategies to mitigate the process of disasters.

✅ What are the four elements of disaster management?

The disaster management has 4 stages
1. Risk reduction
2. Readiness
3. Responses
4. Recoveries

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About the Author

Rachit believes in the power of education and has studied from the top institutes of IIIT Allahabad, IIM Calcutta, and Francois Rabelias in France. He has worked as Software Developer with Microsoft and Adobe. Post his MBA, he worked with the world’s # 1 consulting firm, The Boston Consulting Group across multiple geographies US, South-East Asia and Europe.

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