Accounting principles are the general guidelines and the set of rules which must be followed by the companies while reporting any financial data. Currently, there is no one agency in the whole world that can be regarded as a single principle decider but the set of rules which are currently in use are generally decided by IFRS, UK GAAP, and US GAAP.
Whilst the IFRS works more on the principles, the workings of the UK and US GAAP are usually more devoted to rules. The main reason why accounting principles are considered important is that with the help of them, the economic and financial data of many countries and finance groups can be converted into a form that is lucid to understand worldwide.
But not every company or financial group follow the same set of accounting principles, it depends on the entity and characteristics of the company by which the set of accounting principles that they need to follow is decided.
While the IFRS( International financial reporting standards ) are issued by IASB( International accounting standards board ), In the major countries like the US the GAAP( Generally accepted accounting principles ) are issued by FASB( Financial accounting standards board ).
Some basic accounting principles which govern every financial data are-
- Revenue recognition principle
- Historical cost principle
- Matching principle
- Full disclosure principle
- Objectivity principle
We Will now look at the 5 Principles more briefly: –
Revenue recognition principle
The first accounting principle, the revenue generated by the financial group is considered as its income. Revenue does not include any sort of income generated through third parties. What’s considered is the gross inflow of cash or other receivables that the company gets by selling goods or rendering services.
Historical cost principle
The accounting principle “ Historical cost principle” means that the cost recorded in the accounts of any service acquired by the company will be the one which has been paid at the time of acquisition and if nothing is paid at the time of acquisition then it will not be considered as an asset. This principle is justifiable because it is objectively verifiable.
According to the third principle, the expenses included in an accounting period should be matched with revenue recognized in that same period of time. But this is considered as an accrual concept since it disregards the timing and the actual cash inflow or cash outflow while concentrating on the occurrence of expenses and revenue.
Full disclosure principle
The meaning of the next accounting principle is that the financial statements are there to be used as a tool to convey and not conceal. Each financial data or statement must include all the relevant data and details so that it becomes easy and lucid for the user to understand. The reliability of the data in the statement is also very important in order to not give any false knowledge to the user
The fifth and most basic accounting principle states that the data reported and shown by a financial statement must be verifiable, definite and it should not include any sort of personal edits by the accountant. Basically each data shown in the statement should have some evidence to prove it.