Today, Canada has become an ideal place for higher education studies sought by many prospective international students. The country has a rich history, from its Indigenous people to European colonization, and not to forget immigrant integration. Which has shaped a culture of diversity and inclusion that makes this planet's second-largest country a welcoming home not only for its citizens but also for the many people coming from all sides of the world.
Many of the Canadian universities are present in reputed international rankings, and a new strategy set by the Ministry of Education of Canada focuses on increasing the number of international students in the country. It is also regarded as one of the safest countries in the world, with a low crime rate. According to Global News, in terms of social progress and development, Canada was ranked the second country in the world with the highest quality of life.
The detailed educational plan provided by Canadian universities encourages international students to pursue part-time jobs during their Bachelor's or Master's studies and to remain in the country for work opportunities after graduation. Toronto, Vancouver, Ottawa, Montreal, and Quebec cover for the largest international student population and the regions provide a vibrant and lively atmosphere. In the said country, students can surely combine an enriching academic life with diverse and entertaining leisure activities.
The university or college that one chooses to go to can have a significant impact on the rest of one's life. That's why it is better to have some research about the universities and their rankings.
Canadian universities have a long history and reputation in terms of academic performance, research, and high graduate employability rate. Many of the Canadian higher education institutions compete with leading and famous universities of the world (For instance, top-ranked universities from the United States and the United Kingdom).
According to the QS World University Rankings 2019, following are the top 15 universities in Canada:
Canada offers quality education and globally recognized degrees. Most study programs delivered by the Canadian universities focus a lot on research and technology and provides a chance to students to engage in intriguing experiments and projects, meant to provide them a complete study experience, based on innovation, re-creation and forward-thinking. Some of the most popular courses in Canada are as follows:
Canada has very affordable education fees in comparison to other developed countries which becomes a prime reason for students opting for this country for their higher education. The country is renowned for its exceptional quality of life and the opportunities available to those who live there, but there are many essential things one needs to know about before making a move
Though, living costs in Canada vary a lot because of the vast territory the country covers but estimated living expenses vary between $20,000 and $30,000, in Canadian dollars, per annum. It includes accommodation costs, travel, food, textbooks, weather-appropriate clothing, and entertainment expenses as well. Generally, living in urban areas (in or near a big city) is more expensive than living in smaller towns or suburban areas. The most expensive cities to live in Canada are Toronto in Ontario, Vancouver in British Columbia, Victoria in British Columbia, Hamilton-Burlington in Ontario, Calgary in Alberta, etc. Whereas the least expensive cities are Abbotsford in British Columbia, St. Catherine's in Ontario, Moncton in New Brunswick, the province of Quebec, and more. Students should be able to meet the costs mentioned above while they are studying in Canada. Prices may increase by about 5% to 7% per year due to inflation and other external factors.
The job prospects after studying in Canada are lovely. The Canadian universities are the proud owner of having more than 5000 global tie-ups. The course curriculum in Canada is very industry-oriented. Hence, more than 90% of the graduates get employed in less than six months after graduating from their respective courses in Canada.
In Canada, Customized jobs are available in such a manner that they adhere to all the visa guidelines. Jobs are regarded as a path to earn some extra cash and interact with students from all over the world. In a sense, part-time jobs give students a complete experience of the student culture and life prevalent in the country. Following are the most popular on-campus jobs that a student can take up at Canadian universities:
Today, Australia is the third most popular international student destination in the world. The country attracts around 300,000 international students every year, and the number has taken a sharp jump in 2018 and 2019. Further, universities and colleges in Australia are very diverse and well-equipped with world-class facilities and quality education which have benefitted not just the country, but the world. Australia is home to 43 universities which comprises 40 Australian universities, two international universities, and one private specialty university.
The country has, somewhat, a special allure and has always been drawing talented students like a magnet. Studying in an Australian environment allows for invaluable academic, professional, and personal growth, and opens up an infinite number of career opportunities after graduation. Australian Universities also provide innumerable opportunities in many areas of technology and research, also benefitting from generous funding and offering support to international Ph.D. students. Even undergraduates and postgraduates have the opportunity to attend a Bachelor's and Master's program that involves research.
Apart from studies, University campuses in Australia have a life of their own, and they are like small student towns and encouraging students to socialize, interact, and make friends. Australia also has a multicultural environment, and Australian universities support cultural diversity and in this respect, organize various social and cultural activities.
The university or college that one chooses to go to can have a significant impact on the rest of one's life that's why it is better to have some research about the universities and their rankings.
Fortunately, 37 of the world's best universities in the 2019 edition of the QS World University Rankings are in Australia, including 15 in the global top 250. The institutions at the very top of the ranking are well known for their higher education opportunities. According to the QS World University Rankings 2019, following are the top 15 universities in Australia:
Universities located in Australia have a strong reputation worldwide. The Australian education system is known to be a strong proponent of internationalization and provides diverse programs which become a prime reason for its popularity among international students. The most popular majors in Australia are as follows:
The prime reason for Australia being popular among Indian (International) students is due to the exceptional quality of education and also because of stay-back and immigration features. It offers some of the best undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in the world, but also potentially high living costs one needs to be aware of.
The Australian Government specifies AU$20,290 as the minimum amount required to cover living costs for one year. This figure excludes tuition fees or the cost of travel to and from the country. The average tuition fee for international undergraduate students is AU$30,840 per annum, whereas, for international postgraduate students, the average tuition fee is AU$31,596.
Generally, the cheaper the cost the further away from the city you will be, the more people you'll be living with, or the more rundown the accommodation will be. Expenses also vary depending on the city in which one chooses to study, with Sydney being more expensive, while Adelaide and Canberra are generally less costly.
International students in Australia are allowed to work up to 40 hours a fortnight during the university semester study periods and full-time during the vacation period. Following are the most popular part-time jobs that a student can take up at Australian universities:
Victoria is a prominent Canadian city and the capital of British Columbia, popular among tourists, retirees, and international students. It constantly ranks among the top cities for quality of life. Its economy derives revenue from a myriad of avenues ranging from technological industries, manufacturing, government services, and architecture to retail, education and tourism. It is located at the southern end of Vancouver Islands, which makes it location really amazing and breezy. Students can find many places to relax and have fun in Victoria, Canada.
Victoria has world-class museums, theatres, art galleries, and theatre companies. It also has world-class sports stadiums, semi-professional teams, sports-entertainment avenues influencing the lifestyle of the people. Given the favorable climate throughout the year, people tend to indulge in outdoor activities like sports and entertainment adding a boost to the quality of living. Students often find more than one type of activities to relax and get the stress off.
Victoria is surrounded by a multitude of colleges and universities. the universities there are especially known for promoting creativity and culture. Victoria is a very fun place to be as a student and there are highly rated institutes there which ensure that the students studying there get the best education along with adequate exposure.
Some other renowned Universities are:
Victoria’s economic prosperity is apparent and on the constant rise. In addition to that, its educational scene is flourishing and its quality of life is internationally renowned. Combined, these factors contribute to making the city an educational hotspot.
Canada evidently is a very great place to study. The universities there, especially in Victoria, are some of the best and most reputed. There are also various courses which one can study and there is a also a wide variety to choose from. Universities in Victoria lay a special emphasis on critical approaches and analysis of its concepts.
Victoria is a very nice place to live as a student. Not only it has world-class institutions, but also highly diversified culture and many activities to indulge in for the students. It is a perfect place for the students which is quite affordable and also provides students with great exposure and opportunities.
Universities and colleges in Victoria offer accommodation to students on campus and off-campus. Off-campus accommodation can be applied through the Victoria International Students Program. One can also choose to privately arrange homestays with a host family. All host families are expected to follow certain rules and regulations either they are a part of the VISP program or private.
Many part-time jobs are available for students in Victoria, they can also find jobs in their own universities and colleges as assistant professors or assistant librarians. Part-time jobs can also be found in different areas of Victoria depending upon which course is one pursuing. Accounting is one of the most popular part-time jobs one can find in Victoria.
The cost of living in Victoria is reasonably lower than most part of Canada. The average cost per month in a shared living ranges from INR 60000 to 75000, whereas it can go up to 1 lakh for a one-bedroom apartment. This average cost also includes rent, transportation, utilities, food and miscellaneous. The food and other transportation costs in Victoria are affordable as well and public transport makes the overall expenditure affordable for the students.
Victoria is one of the sunniest cities of Canada and has the mildest of climate. The summers are warm and dry with maximum temperatures up to 25 degree Celsius. The winters are cold with temperatures dropping to near zero degrees. Being near the beach, the weather is perfect most of the times and very comforting for the students.
Most international students need to apply for a study permit with a designated learning institution. A study permit is valid through the duration of the applied course. A study permit may not be necessary for short term courses.
The LLB or Bachelor of Laws is an undergraduate course of three years. This teaches students to critically analyze and understand and the rules and institutions established to promote and secure justice and order. In LLB course the students learn the legal analysis and content of law. They gain experience in the areas of mooting, negotiation and arguing. There would be mock courtrooms also which will provide you a very good learning experience.
If you have a law degree it will open up for you various career options. Apart from the legal professions you will get other traditional roles like solicitors and barristers.
Study of law is also known as ‘Legal studies’. In earlier days the first academic degree awarded were Doctorates in Law. In today’s education system the study of Law has become highly organized.
Types of Law Degrees
Now the first degree of Law to be studied university is the Bachelor. There are many different types of law degrees available across the world, it vary from country to country. In many countries it is called as Bachelor of Law (LLB). But in universities of some other countries it is also known as a B.A. or B.Sc. in Law. In US, Australia, Japan, Hong Kong and Canada the degree offered are known as Juris Doctor (JD).
In first semester of study one is specialized in one of the field below. There are many branches or types of law they are described as below:
Apart from these branches of law, some of the universities also allow the students to develop their own specialized bachelor of law programs.
Syllabus and Course Curriculum
Generally the syllabus of LLB is designed in such a way that all aspect of law can be included in curriculum of three year study course. This three year would be divided into mainly 6 semesters. In a year the subjects are divided into core subjects and optional subjects. The subjects which are covered by almost all the top Universities in these three years are as follow:
Other basic course structure of LLB course would consists of following things:
Tuition fee of the students for LLB course would depend on the country of origin – from inside and outside of the EU (European Union)/ EEA (European Economic Area). They are given below. The Dutch government indexed the fee every year. If the student take more than three academic year to finish the course than they have to pay extra money. The tuition fee would not include accommodation, living, books, cost of travel and insurance.
The students should transfer the Tuition fee before starting of academic year, after completion of the course. The exchange rates would vary greatly so one should be aware of the rates. There would be some scholarship also available for the students.
Top Universities to study LLB
The top five universities to study LLB are:
Eligibility Requirements and Admission Process
For getting admission in LLB course one has to clear the entrance test of the particular university in which they are interested. It is different for each university and there is no common exam for the purpose. The English Proficiency exam score is an essential requirement. Students can appear for TOEFL or IELTS or PTE. All of these are standard exams and they have their own testing and marking procedures.Another essential requirement is that the student must have scored 50% of marks in his higher education.
The individuals who have completed LLB in European Law would immediately gain the employment in the country as they earned the degree. If they want to work in other European countries they have to clear country-specific bar exam or other test that permits them to legally permit them to practice law in that particular country.
In many other country just the degree of LLB is not just enough to practice law. They also required to do the following things:
The good news if you earn an LLB degree from an European states than with just three years of practice you will get licence for practicing law in any other EU country.
The Typical career path with an LLB degree is to become a public prosecutor, a judge or a lawyer. Apart from these one can work as a lawyer at private firms. Apart from the above they can find the career in following areas:
The LLB job types are:
Thus for having a LLB degree you should have good communication and good presence of mind. This degree would not just give you an employment but also a authority to fight against inequality.
Ph.D. or DPhil is the postgraduate doctorate in any subject which is provided after the submission of an original thesis generally on a new area in the respective subject or contributing significantly to your desired subject. It is usually the highest form of degree or education in a particular field and is therefore also referred as a terminal degree. Earlier a masters degree was said to be the highest level of education that one can attain in a subject but as the emphasis changed to new ideas and knowledge Ph.D was introduced to encourage those interested in research.
Traditionally, one earned a title of “Doctor” after attaining it. However, today it depends on the type of degree and the subject area of the person. Different types of doctoral degrees are-
Professional Doctoral Degree: Usually provided in USA and Canada in which study supports a specific profession, such as psychology, medicine, engineering, education, or law etc. It focuses on applied research and courses like MD, Ed.D., JD are also known as the first professional degrees.
Research Doctoral Degree: It is awarded to candidates who have conducted research publishable enough to be published in a peer-reviewed academic journal. The most common research doctoral degree is the Doctor of Philosophy, or PhD.
Honorary Doctoral Degree: It is more advanced and professional than a common Ph.D as it is based on a candidate’s achievements and contribution to a particular field or cause. The college or university usually waives all the formalities. Even though being common, most of the renowned universities deny to provide it.
Terminal Academic Research Degrees: No higher degree than this that can be awarded such as PhD in USA. But sometimes even though being a terminal degree in a profession, it may only amount to prerequisites to research degrees in the same subject area.
Some of the institutions provides different types of Ph.D. programmes as well, some of them are-
The integrated PhD programme (based on a Bachelor’s degree): One can begin a PhD study while studying Master’s degree. Bachelor’s degree must be completed and must be selected for a Master’s degree or must have begun it. An integrated PhD will consist of two parts; one part is completed when Master’s degree is obtained and another part begins immediately thereafter. It is two years of full time PhD study.
The business-oriented industrial PhD programme: It is a 3 year research project focused on industry and is carried out in collaboration between a company, the candidate and the university.
PhD double/joint degree: A joint PhD includes a collaboration between two or more universities and a joint or a double PhD degree is awarded. In double PhD degree the student receives two diplomas, one from each university.
In Joint PhD degree the student receives one joint PhD diploma, signed by both universities.
Executive doctoral programs: It mostly includes business and management, business leadership, theology, counseling and professional studies, public health, education management etc. It helps working professionals to enter into the academia. Classes are often offered during evenings/ weekends, as well as online, thus providing flexibility and usually ending with a dissertation.
Usually a person’s Ph.D. continues from 2-10 years on average. However the timing of completion is dependent on various other factors like one’s experience, institution offering it and the subject you are studying but nearly all programs set out time limitations of how long an individual has to complete. A typical PhD normally involves literature review; original research and collecting data; thesis presenting one’s observations; submitting a dissertation; presenting research reports and projects to be reviewed by a committee and a viva exam where one is supposed to present and answer questions on the thesis. One needs to defend the PhD thesis to an international scientific jury. Mostly the first year includes foundational classes in research work, while the second and third year focuses on specific courses. In most part of the time one does a literature study and collect data or samples and make analyses. One also learns the methodologies to analyse and interpret results. In Executive Doctoral Program, some variations are generally included such as research methodology seminar; global marketing strategy; dissertation seminar; Data analysis; Research design or Advanced business theory etc.
While doing the Ph.D. course apart from research students also need to take care of the following-
The cost of a doctorate degree depends on the type of degree that is being pursued and may require a significant investment. The U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) 2011-2012 cost information specific to doctoral degree programs is $36,600. Universities also provide for funding packages for a certain time period. These packages usually includes- Academic tuitions, Insurance, Study materials, Living and Travel stipend etc. as deemed fit. However, to keep getting such benefits the students are required to maintain a minimum GPA or teach students of undergraduates or masters programme as an assistant ( usually get six years (in contrary to four years for a PhD) during which time is divided between the preparation of PhD and rendering of services towards the faculty, usually consisting of teaching). Many companies, NGOs, employers, Fellowships, grants, scholarships, annual stipends, on-campus teaching jobs, Student loans etc. offer further financial aid to the students.
Admission to these programmes is not easy and requirements do vary from institution to institution but most require submission of transcripts from their bachelor's and master's degree programs usually from the same subject; minimum GPA standards, reference letters from professors and seniors and passing a standardized test for admission which usually consist of GRE (Graduate Records Examinations) or GMAT(Graduate Management Admission Test). Most Universities do ask for a statement of purpose which must convey why an individual wish to pursue doctorate; how they have prepared themselves for this level of research; mentions their academic and future career goals; why they are a suitable candidate and how this doctorate helps in enhancing their life goals.
These are some of the universities famous for their doctoral programmes in the USA. Some of the universities that also provide Ph.D. without an GRE are Purdue University- PhD in Chemistry; Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine- PhD in Clinical Psychology; MIT- PhD in Media Arts and Science; Oregon State University- PhD in Physics; University of Wisconsin- PhD in Philosophy; University of Idaho- PhD in Civil Engineering etc.
Anesthesiologists; Audiologists; Computer and information research scientists; Family and general practitioners; Obstetricians and gynecologists; Optometrists; Orthodontists; Pediatricians; Physical therapists; Architectural conservationist, curatorial consultant, artist representative; Curatorial and historical studies; Podiatrists; Psychiatrists; Surgeons; Chiropractors; Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists; teachers(postsecondary) are some of the jobs with growth rate of median 10-20% and an average salary of $75,000/- that requires Ph.D. as an specific eligibility criteria. In an executive doctoral program which is to advance a candidate professionally, the career positions are: Chief financial officer; Chief operating officer; Vice president of finance; Vice president of marketing; Academic professor; Professional consultant; Financial analyst etc. University professors often earn additional income by publishing their research, speaking at conferences, consulting with companies and teaching at area schools etc. Those with a management doctoral degree can expect a median salary of over $70,000 in the United States.
Therefore, Ph.D. is a great course for people with an inclination towards research and development of new ideas and knowledge and the career aspects, less cost and personal growth makes it a must consideration.