The Branch of science which deals with DNA and genes is called
Genetic Engineering. The scientists in the field of Genetic Engineering reconstruct and redesign the characteristics of an individual organism.
Genetic Engineering is utilized in areas like medicine, agriculture, and research. The use of Genetic Engineering in medicine refers to the manufacturing of medicines and other pharmaceuticals at lower costs, handling disease pandemics in the world. The concepts of genetic engineering are used to modify and correct genes that can prevent heredity diseases. Genetic engineers have the ability to produce such enzymes which can make the chemical industry safer and more sustainable.
There is the abundant use of Genetic Engineering in Agriculture like producing genetically modified crops, fruits, and vegetables which has ensured a great deal of food security in the world by increasing the crop yield multiple times. Genetic Engineers work upon the reduction of the use of harmful pesticides and insecticides which make it to our food chain and cause diseases like Cancer. Genetic engineering has ensured enhanced nutrition in our food, our crops have become disease resistant. All of the above has contributed to substantial cost reduction in Agriculture for economies of the world too.
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Furthermore, Genetic engineering is a field where there is scope for abundant research and development. Genes of the simplest to the most complex organisms are studied and new discoveries are being made on the basis of such research. The DNA of a bacteria is researched with the same amount of detail as much as the DNA of a human being.
Genetic Engineering is a part of the broader field called Biotechnology. Candidates who are interested in pursuing Genetic Engineering may opt for bachelor courses like Bachelor of engineering in Genetic Engineering, B.Tech in Genetic Engineering, B.sc in Genetic Engineering. Such courses may be followed by Masters of Engineering in Genetic Engineering, M.Tech in Genetic Engineering, M.sc in Genetic Engineering.
While pursuing Genetic Engineering any potential candidate has a range of options for specializations available to him or her, namely, clinical genetics, behavioral genetics, classical genetics, genomics, quantitative and ecological genetics, molecular genetics, and genetic algorithms.
The eligibility criteria for admissions in the aforesaid courses and streams for Genetic Engineering depends upon 10+2 scores (only students who have studied science can pursue genetic engineering) and entrance examinations of which JEE (Main and Advanced) is the most commonly accepted by the top institutes of the country for the Under Graduate courses.
For the Post Graduate courses in Genetic Engineering, the widely accepted examination is GATE. A lot of candidates choose to go for a Ph.D. later and become scientists or professors of genetic engineering thereby selecting research and development as their profile.
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The top institutes in the country offering courses in Genetic Engineering are the Indian Institute of Technology ( Kharagpur, Madras, Delhi ), Indian Institute of Science (Bangalore), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (New Delhi).
The top institutes in the United States Of America offering courses in biotechnology and Genetic Engineering are the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Texas at Austin, Duke University, John Hopkins, New Mexico State University, Harvard University, University of Massachusetts, Oregon State University, Case Western Reserve University, Columbia University.