Syllogism

Syllogism is a type of conclusion that is formed from two given or assumed propositions – a middle ground may be present in the premises but however not in the conclusion. It tests the deductive reasoning of the candidates. A conclusion can be deduced from a general statement and a specific statement which is also known as a major premise and a minor premise. A three-line format is generally followed to present a syllogistic argument.

Syllogism can seem to be airtight arguments but however there can be discrepancies within them if any one of the premises is found to be false or when the premises are not absolute, a faulty conclusion may be deduced. 

Syllogism is a type of verbal logical reasoning questions usually asked in a candidate interview for higher studies. Some examples of questions asked in the syllogistic form are as follows: –

1. Statements: Some Cats are Rats. All bats are tables. All Rats are Bats.

    Conclusion:

I. Some Cats are bats

II. All bats are rats

III. All tables are cats

IV. All bats are cats

1. Only I & II follows

2. Only II follows

3. Only I & IV follows

4. None of these

2. Statements: All Carrots are birds. Some telephones are Carrots. All bedsheets are telephone.

    Conclusion:

I. All bedsheet are birds

II. Some bedsheet are birds

III. Some birds are telephone

IV. All telephone are birds

1. Only I follows

2. Only II follows

3. Only I and III follows

4. Only III follows

3. Statements: Most CPUs are keyboards. No keyboard is a Mouse. All Mouses are CPU.

    Conclusion:

I. Some keyboards are CPU

II. All CPU’s are Mouse

III. No Mouse is a keyboard

IV. Some Mouse are keyboard

1. Only I follows

2. Only II and III follows

3. Only I and III follows

4. Only II follows

4. Statements: Samosas are Jalebi. All Jalebis are Tikki. All Tikkis are Barfi

   Conclusion:

I. All Jalebis are Barfi

II. All Tikkis are Samosas

III. All Samosas are Barfi

IV. All Barfi are Jalebi

1. Only I and II follow

2. Only I and III follow

3. Only II and III follow

4. All follow

5. Statements: Some ships are boats. All boats are submarines. Some submarines are yatches.

    Conclusion:

I. Some yatches are boats.

II. Some submarines are boats.

III. Some submarines are ships.

IV. Some yatches are ships

1. All follow

2. Only II and III follows

3. Only III follows

4. Only IV follows

6. Statements: Some eyes are ears. Some ears are lungs. All lungs are hands

    Conclusion:

1. I. Some hands are eyes.

II. Some hands are ears

III. Some lungs are eyes

IV. No hand is eye

1. None follow

2. Only IV follows

3. Only II follows

4. Only III follows

7. Statements: All liquids are solids. Some solids are gases. All gases are clouds

    Conclusion:

I. Some clouds are solids

II. Some clouds are liquids

III. Some gases are liquids

IV. Some solids are clouds

1. None follow

2. Only I and II follows

3. Only III and IV follows

4. Only I and IV follows

8. Statements: All Gold are Platinum. No Platinum is silver. Some Diamonds are silver.

    Conclusion:

I. Some Diamonds are Gold

II. Some Diamonds are Platinum

III. Some Gold are Silver

IV. No Silver is Gold

1. Only I follows

2. Only III follows

3. Only IV follows

4. Only II and IV follows

Answers for some of the questions asked can be logically induced very easily by disregarding commonly known facts however for other one will have to take time and understand the premise before answering them.

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About the Author

Piyush values education and has studied from the top institutes of IIT Roorkee, IIM Bangalore, KTH Sweden and Tsinghua University in China. Post completing his MBA, he has worked with the world’s # 1 consulting firm, The Boston Consulting Group and focused on building sales and marketing verticals for top MNCs and Indian business houses.

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