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Written by  Rachit Agrawal, MBA

Published on Wed, February 19, 2020 10:54 AM   Updated on Mon, June 15, 2020 12:11 PM   4 mins read

Drawing conclusions or obtaining an inference by the power of deduction and reason is known as reasoning. Reasoning can be found gaining popularity is most of the competitive examinations. It tests the skill of the candidates in being able to think logically and arrive at a solution for the problems raised.

Some of the topics that are usually covered under the Reasoning section of the examination paper are as follows: –


Puzzles and seating arrangement

Questions in which the candidates have to ascertain seating arrangements for several people around a table (circular, rectangular, hexagonal, linear, etc.) based on certain conditions provided as well as puzzle type questions.

Also Read: Syllogism


A syllogism is a type of conclusion that is formed from two given or assumed propositions – a middle ground may be present in the premises but not in conclusion. It tests the deductive reasoning of the candidates.

Data sufficiency

Data sufficiency questions are provided in the form of paragraphs, and questions are then asked such that they can answer if the paragraph has been read and understood.

Coding and decoding

Coding is the method of encrypting messages before they were sent. Decoding is the process in which these encrypted messages are broken down and made easy to understand. These questions test the logical reasoning skill of the candidates applying for the various posts.

Also Read: Reasoning Questions

Blood relations

These questions have to understand carefully and analyzed before attempting as they can be easily confused and mixed up. The blood relations between parents and their children have to note and take care of especially.

Alpha Numerical symbol series

These are questions in which the pattern between the given alphabets, symbols, and numbers have to be found out and chosen.

Also Read: Quantitative Aptitude

Logical reasoning

Logical reasoning questions deal with assumptions and conclusions, inference, cause and effect, cause of action, the strength of arguments, etc.


These types of questions deal with equations and varying answers, which can be found out to be satisfying the equation or not by trial and error method.

Some of the other topics are as follows: –

  • Number Series
  • Verbal Classification
  • Analogies
  • Matching Definitions
  • Verbal Reasoning
  • Logical Games
  • Statement and Assumption
  • Statement and Conclusion
  • Cause and Effect
  • Logical Deduction
  • Letter and Symbol Series
  • Essential Part
  • Artificial Language


1. Look at this series: 12, 11, 13, 12, 14, 13, … What number should come next?

  • A. 10
  • B. 16
  • C. 13
  • D. 15

2. Which word does NOT belong with the others?

  • A. index
  • B. glossary
  • C. chapter
  • D. book

3. Safe: Secure; Protect:

  • A. Lock
  • B. Guard
  • C. Sure
  • D. Conserve

4. An Informal Gathering occurs when a group of people gets together in a casual, relaxed manner. Which situation below is the best example of an Informal Gathering?

  • A. A debating club meets on the first Sunday morning of every month.
  • B. After finding out about his salary raise, Jay and a few colleagues go out for a quick dinner after work.
  • C. Meena sends out ten invitations for a bachelorette party she is giving for her elder sister.
  • D. Whenever she eats at a Chinese restaurant, Roop seems to run into Dibya.

5. The ‘A’ state government has chalked out a plan for the underdeveloped ‘B’ district where 66% of the funds will be placed in the hands of a committee of local representatives.

Courses of action:

I. The ‘A’ state government should decide guidelines and norms for the functioning of the committee.

II. Other state governments may follow a similar plan if directed by the Central government.

  • A. If only I follow
  • B. If only II follows
  • C. If either I or II follows
  • D. If neither I nor II follows
  • E. If both I and II follow

6. Statements: Use Kraft” colors. They add color to our life. – An advertisement.

Conclusions: Catchy slogans do not attract people.

People like dark colors. The only conclusion I follows

  • A. Only conclusion II follows
  • B. Either I or II follows
  • C. Neither I nor II follows
  • D. Both I and II follow


✅ What are the reasoning topics?

Some of the important topics from Reasoning section are
1. Alphabet Test
2. Analogy
3. Arithmetical Reasoning
4. Blood Relations
5. Calendar and Clock Test
6. Classification
7. Coding-Decoding
8. Cubes and Dices Test

✅ What is the concept of reasoning?

The process of thinking about something in a logical way in order to form a conclusion or judgment

✅ Who is the father of reasoning?

The Greek philosopher Aristotle, who is considered the father of deductive reasoning, wrote the following classic example: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

About the Author & Expert


Rachit Agrawal

Author • MBA • 20 Years

Rachit believes in the power of education and has studied from the top institutes of IIIT Allahabad, IIM Calcutta, and Francois Rabelias in France. He has worked as Software Developer with Microsoft and Adobe. Post his MBA, he worked with the world's # 1 consulting firm, The Boston Consulting Group across multiple geographies US, South-East Asia and Europe.

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